1543 - Portuguese sailors arrive in Tanegashima （種子島）and transmit the arquebus (火繩槍).
1549 - St Francis Xavier arrives in Kagoshima (鹿兒島). Dainichi (大日如来 Vairocana)
1555 - Establishment of Macau by the Portuguese. Dispatch of annual trading ships to Japan.
1570 - Japanese pirates (倭寇) occupy parts of Taiwan, from where they prey on China.
1575 - Battle of Nagashino (長篠), where firearms are used extensively.
1582-1590 - The Japanese Mission to Europe - the jouney of four samurai boys
1592 - Japan invades Korea in the Seven-Year War (萬曆朝鮮戰爭) with an army of 160,000.
- First known mention of Red Seal Ships (朱印船 Shuinsen).
1597 - Martyrdom of 26 Christians (essentially Franciscans) in Nagasaki(長崎).
1598 - Death of Hideyoshi（豊臣秀吉）
1600 - Arrival of William Adams (三浦按針) on the Liefde.
1602 - Dutch warships attack the Portuguese carrack (卡拉克帆船) Santa Catarina near Malacca (馬六甲).
1603 - establishment of Edo (江戸) as the seat of Bakufu (幕府) government.
1609 - The Dutch open a trading factory in Hirado (平戸).
1613 - England opens a trading factory in Hirado.
1614 - Edict of Tokugawa Ieyasu (德川家康) to expell the Jesuits from Japan. Prohibition of Christianity.
1622 - Mass martyrdom of Christians.
1623 - The English close their factory at Hirado, because of unprofitability.
1628 - Portuguese trade in Japan is prohibited during 3 years as a reprisal.
1637 - Shimabara Rebellion (島原の乱) by Christian peasants.
1638 - Definitive prohibition of trade with Portugal as result of Shimabara Rebellion blamed on Catholic intrigues.
1641 - The Dutch trading factory is moved from Hirado to Nagasaki.