(主動語態 active vocie, 直述語氣 indicative mood:
現在present, 常過imperfect, 將來future, 全過perfect, 先過pluperfect, 未過future perfect)



* Specific present - what is going on now:

- Auribus teneo lupum.

(I am holding a wolf by the ears. - Present progressive)

- Periculum vitant.

(They are trying to avoid danger. - Present progressive)

* Universal present - that apply to all time:

- Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori.

(It is sweet and seemly to die for fatherland.)

* Lively representation of the past:

- Cohortis incedere jubet.

(He orders the cohorts to advance.)

* Actions that are continued into the present (with JAM, JAM DIU, JAM PRIDEM):

- Annum jam tertium et vicesimum regnat.

(He has been reigning now going on twenty-three years. - Present perfect progressive)

- Qui mortem non timet, magnum sibi praesidium ad beatam vitam comparat.

(He who fears not death gets for himself great warrant for a happy life.)


* Continuance in the past:

- Pugnabam.

(I was fighting. - Past progressive)

- Puer lacrimabat et infelix erat.

(The boy was crying and was unhappy. - Past progressive)

* Repeated action in the past:

Prima luce surgebat.

(He used to get up at dawn.)

* As the English pluperfect:

Jam dudum tibi adversabar.

(I had long been opposing you. - Past perfect progressive)

Tres jam horas aderam.

(I had been present for three hours - and still was present. - Past perfect progressive)


* Denotes continuance in the future:

- Scribam.

(I shall be writing.)

- Ad te scribam.

(I shall write to you.)

* Denotes an indefinite action in the future:

- Scribam.

(I shall write.)

- Donec eris felix, multos numerabis amicos.

(So long as you shall be happy, you will count many friends.)

- Odero si potero; si non, invitus amabo.

(I will hate if I shall be able; if not, I shall love against my will.)

- Qui adipisci gloriam volet, justitiae fungatur officiis.

(Whoso shall wish to obtain true glory, let him discharge the calls of justice.)

* In an imperative sense:

- Tu nihil dices.

(You will say nothing.)

- Cum volet accedes, cum te vitabit abibis.

(When she wants you, approach, and when she avoids you, begone.)


* Pure perfect - completion in the present:

1) Action that is now over and gone:

- Viximus

(We have lived.)

- Filium unicum habeo, immo habui.

(I have an only son - nay, have had an only son.)

- Tempora quid faciunt: hanc volo, te volui.

(What difference times make! I want her [ the time being], I wanted you [the time has been].)

2) The present result of a more remote action:

- Equum et mulum Brundisii tibi reliqui.

(I have left a horse and mule for you at Brundusium - they are still there.)

- Perdidi spem qua me oblectabam.

(I've lost the hope with which I entertained myself.)

- Novi.

(I have become acquainted with. = I know.)

- Memini.

(I have recalled. = I remember.)

- Odi.

(I have conceived a hatred of. = I hate.)

- Consuevi.

(I have made it a rule = I am accustomed)

- Oderunt hilarem tristes tristemque jocosi.

(The long-faced hate the lively man, the jokers hate the long-faced man.)

3) Perfect stands for the future perfect:

- Si conservatus erit, vicimus.

(If he is saved, we are victorious [we shall have gained the victory].)

* Historical perfect - just past action without reference to its duration:

- Veni, vidi, vici.

(I came, saw, overcame.)

- Milo domum venit, calceos et vestimenta mutavit, paulisper commoratus est.

(Milo came home, changed shoes and garments, tarried a little while.)

* The use of imperfect with perfect:

Perfect gives the general statement, the imperfect the particulars:

- In forum veni; ardebant oculi; toto ex ore crudelitas eminebat.

(He came into the forum, his eyes were blazing, cruelty was standing out from his whole countenance.)


* Denotes completion in the past:

It is used of an action that was completed before another was begun.

1) Action just concluded in the past:

- Modo Caesarem regnantem videramus.

( We had just seen Caesar on the throne.)

2) Action over and gone:

- Fuerat inimicus.

(He had been my enemy.)

3) A resulting condition in the past:

- Massilienses portas Caesari clauserant.

(Marseillese had shut their gates against Caesar.)


The perfect transferred to the future, and embraces both completion and attainment.

- Facero.

(I shall have done it, or I shall do it.)

- Videro.

(I will see to it.)

- Novero.

(I shall know.)

- Qui prior strinxerit ferrum ejus victoria erit.

(Who first draws the sword, his shall be the victory.)

- Si potuero, faciam vobis satis.

(If I can, I shall satisfy you.)

- Qui antonium oppresserit, is bellum confecerit.

(He who shall have crushed Anthony, will have finished the war.)

- Vitia qui fugerit, is omnia fere vitia vitaverit.

(He who shall have escaped these faults, will have avoided almost all faults.)