時態 TENSES(主動語態 active vocie, 直述語氣 indicative mood:
現在present, 常過imperfect, 將來future, 全過perfect, 先過pluperfect, 未過future perfect)
現在時態 PRESENT TENSE:
* Specific present - what is going on now:
- Auribus teneo lupum.
(I am holding a wolf by the ears. - Present progressive)
- Periculum vitant.
(They are trying to avoid danger. - Present progressive)
* Universal present - that apply to all time:
- Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori.
(It is sweet and seemly to die for fatherland.)
* Lively representation of the past:
- Cohortis incedere jubet.
(He orders the cohorts to advance.)
* Actions that are continued into the present (with JAM, JAM DIU, JAM PRIDEM):
- Annum jam tertium et vicesimum regnat.
(He has been reigning now going on twenty-three years. - Present perfect progressive)
- Qui mortem non timet, magnum sibi praesidium ad beatam vitam comparat.
(He who fears not death gets for himself great warrant for a happy life.)
常過時態 IMPERFECT TENSE:
* Continuance in the past:
(I was fighting. - Past progressive)
- Puer lacrimabat et infelix erat.
(The boy was crying and was unhappy. - Past progressive)
* Repeated action in the past:
Prima luce surgebat.
(He used to get up at dawn.)
* As the English pluperfect:
Jam dudum tibi adversabar.
(I had long been opposing you. - Past perfect progressive)
Tres jam horas aderam.
(I had been present for three hours - and still was present. - Past perfect progressive)
將來時態 FUTURE TENSE:
* Denotes continuance in the future:
(I shall be writing.)
- Ad te scribam.
(I shall write to you.)
* Denotes an indefinite action in the future:
(I shall write.)
- Donec eris felix, multos numerabis amicos.
(So long as you shall be happy, you will count many friends.)
- Odero si potero; si non, invitus amabo.
(I will hate if I shall be able; if not, I shall love against my will.)
- Qui adipisci gloriam volet, justitiae fungatur officiis.
(Whoso shall wish to obtain true glory, let him discharge the calls of justice.)
* In an imperative sense:
- Tu nihil dices.
(You will say nothing.)
- Cum volet accedes, cum te vitabit abibis.
(When she wants you, approach, and when she avoids you, begone.)
全過時態 PERFECT TENSE:
* Pure perfect - completion in the present:
1) Action that is now over and gone:
(We have lived.)
- Filium unicum habeo, immo habui.
(I have an only son - nay, have had an only son.)
- Tempora quid faciunt: hanc volo, te volui.
(What difference times make! I want her [ the time being], I wanted you [the time has been].)
2) The present result of a more remote action:
- Equum et mulum Brundisii tibi reliqui.
(I have left a horse and mule for you at Brundusium - they are still there.)
- Perdidi spem qua me oblectabam.
(I've lost the hope with which I entertained myself.)
(I have become acquainted with. = I know.)
(I have recalled. = I remember.)
(I have conceived a hatred of. = I hate.)
(I have made it a rule = I am accustomed)
- Oderunt hilarem tristes tristemque jocosi.
(The long-faced hate the lively man, the jokers hate the long-faced man.)
3) Perfect stands for the future perfect:
- Si conservatus erit, vicimus.
(If he is saved, we are victorious [we shall have gained the victory].)
* Historical perfect - just past action without reference to its duration:
- Veni, vidi, vici.
(I came, saw, overcame.)
- Milo domum venit, calceos et vestimenta mutavit, paulisper commoratus est.
(Milo came home, changed shoes and garments, tarried a little while.)
* The use of imperfect with perfect:
Perfect gives the general statement, the imperfect the particulars:
- In forum veni; ardebant oculi; toto ex ore crudelitas eminebat.
(He came into the forum, his eyes were blazing, cruelty was standing out from his whole countenance.)
先過時態 PLUPERFECT TENSE:
* Denotes completion in the past:
It is used of an action that was completed before another was begun.
1) Action just concluded in the past:
- Modo Caesarem regnantem videramus.
( We had just seen Caesar on the throne.)
2) Action over and gone:
- Fuerat inimicus.
(He had been my enemy.)
3) A resulting condition in the past:
- Massilienses portas Caesari clauserant.
(Marseillese had shut their gates against Caesar.)
未過時態 FUTURE PERFECT TENSE:
The perfect transferred to the future, and embraces both completion and attainment.
(I shall have done it, or I shall do it.)
(I will see to it.)
(I shall know.)
- Qui prior strinxerit ferrum ejus victoria erit.
(Who first draws the sword, his shall be the victory.)
- Si potuero, faciam vobis satis.
(If I can, I shall satisfy you.)
- Qui antonium oppresserit, is bellum confecerit.
(He who shall have crushed Anthony, will have finished the war.)
- Vitia qui fugerit, is omnia fere vitia vitaverit.
(He who shall have escaped these faults, will have avoided almost all faults.)