[Owl] Comparison of Adjectives

1) Comparatives:

1.1) Formation of comparatives:

Stem plus -ior (m. f.) -ius (n.)

alt-ior, alt-ior, alt-ius (higher)

1.2) Declension of comparatives:

Follows mostly the third declension

SG. M. F. N.
Nom. alt-ior alt-ior alt-ius
Gen. alt-ioris alt-ioris alt-ioris
Dat. alt-iori alt-iori alt-iori
Acc. alt-iorem alt-iorem alt-ius
Abl. alt-iore alt-iore alt-iore
PL. M. F. N.
Nom. alt-iores alt-iores alt-iora
Gen. alt-iorum alt-iorum alt-iorum
Dat. alt-ioribus alt-ioribus alt-ioribus
Acc. alt-iores alt-iores alt-iora
Abl. alt-ioribus alt-ioribus alt-ioribus

1.3) Usage of comparatives:

* with quam: Hi libri sunt clariores quam illi. [These books are clearer than those.]

When two qualities of an object are compared, both adjectives are in the comparative:

Longior quam latior acies erat. [The line was longer than it was broad.]

* without quam: Vita ejus erat brevior. [meaning "rather"]

* with ablative: Consilia tua sunt clariora luce.

Where magis is used, both adjectives are in the positive:

clari magis quam honesti [more renowned than honorable]

2) Superlatives:

2.1) Formation of superlatives:

By adding -issimus -issima -issimum to the stem

e.g. altus -a -um -> altissimus altissima altissimum

* If the adjective has -er in nom. sg. m., simply add -rimus rima -rimum to form the superlative.

e.g. acer -cris -cre -> acerrimus acerrima acerrimum.

2.2) Declension of superlatives:

Follows the first and second declension as "bonus, -a, -um"

2.3) Usage of superlatives:

* with quam, vel, or unus:

Amicus meus erat vir quam jucundissimus. [meaning of the greatest possible degree]

vel minimus [the very least]

vir unus doctissimus [the one most learned man]

* without quam: Vita ejus erat brevissima. [meaning "very"]

The Superlative of eminence often used in complimentary references to persons. It also denotes a very high degree of a quality without implying a distinct comparison:

as, --mons altissimus, a very high mountain.

Superlatives denoting order and succession usually designate not what object, but what part of it:

summus mons [the top of the hill]
in ultima platea [at the end of the place]
prior actio [the earlier part of an action]

3) Irregular comparisons:

* Special formation of seven comparatives and superlatives:

bonus -a -um [good] melior melior melius optimus -a -um
malus -a -um [bad] peior peior peius pessimus -a -um
magnus -a -um [great] maior maior maius maximus -a -um
parvus -a -um [small] minor minor minus minimus -a -um
multus -a -um [much] - - plus plurimus -a -um
- - - prior prior prius [former] primus -a -um [first]
superus -a -um [above] superior superior superius [high] supremus -a -um; summus -a -um [highest]

N.B.: Adjectives ending in -us preceded by a vowel form comparative and superlative by adding magis and maxime respectively (except those ending in -quus).

e.g.: idoneus -a -um, magis idoneus -a -um, maxime idoneus -a -um.

Except: antiquus -a -um, antiquior antiquior antiquius, antiquissimus -a -um.

* Inflection of "plus":

M.F. SG. N. SG. M.F. PL. N.PL.
Nom. - plus plures plura
Gen. - pluris plurium plurium
Dat. - - pluribus pluribus
Acc. - plus plures plura
Abl. - plure pluribus pluribus

* Special formation of six superlatives:

Comparative Superlative
facilis -e facilior -ius facilimus -a -um
difficilis -e difficilior -ius difficilimus -a -um
similis -e similior -ius similimus -a -um
dissimilis -e dissimilior -ius dissimilimus -a -um
gracilis -e gracilior -ius gracilimus -a -um
humilis -e humilior -ius humilimus -a -um