1.1) Formation of comparatives:
-ior (m. f.) -ius (n.)
1.2) Declension of comparatives:
Follows mostly the third declension
1.3) Usage of comparatives:
* with quam: Hi libri sunt clariores quam illi. [These books are clearer than those.]
When two qualities of an object are compared, both adjectives are in the comparative:
quam latior acies erat. [The line was longer than it
* without quam: Vita ejus erat brevior. [meaning "rather"]
* with ablative: Consilia tua sunt clariora luce.
Where magis is used, both adjectives are in the positive:
magis quam honesti [more renowned than honorable]
2.1) Formation of superlatives:
By adding -issimus -issima -issimum to the stem
e.g. altus -a -um -> altissimus altissima altissimum
* If the adjective has -er in nom. sg. m., simply add -rimus rima -rimum to form the superlative.
e.g. acer -cris -cre -> acerrimus acerrima acerrimum.
2.2) Declension of superlatives:
Follows the first and second declension as "bonus, -a, -um"
2.3) Usage of superlatives:
* with quam, vel, or unus:
Amicus meus erat vir quam jucundissimus. [meaning of the greatest possible degree]
vel minimus [the very least]
vir unus doctissimus [the one most learned man]
* without quam: Vita ejus erat brevissima. [meaning "very"]
The Superlative of eminence often used in complimentary references to persons. It also denotes a very high degree of a quality without implying a distinct comparison:
altissimus, a very high mountain.
Superlatives denoting order and succession usually designate not what object, but what part of it:
mons [the top of the hill]
3) Irregular comparisons:
* Special formation of seven comparatives and superlatives:
N.B.: Adjectives ending in -us preceded by a vowel form comparative and superlative by adding magis and maxime respectively (except those ending in -quus).
e.g.: idoneus -a -um, magis idoneus -a -um, maxime idoneus -a -um.
antiquus -a -um, antiquior antiquior antiquius, antiquissimus -a -um.
* Inflection of "plus":
* Special formation of six superlatives: