LATIN TENSES

LATIN VERBS

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Voice: active, passive

Mood: indicative, subjunctive, imperative, infinitive

Tense: present, imperfect, future // perfect, pluperfect, future perfect

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UNFINISHED (Present system) 

Present:
- what is going on now or is
Melissa cantat. Melissa sings, is singing, does sing.
- an action begun in the past and still going on now (jam, jam diu, dudum, pridem)
Tres jam horas adsum. I have been here for three hours.
- instead of perfect tense
Caecilius in culinam pavonem portat et cantat. Caecilius brought a peacock to the kitchen and singed.

Imprerfect:
- what went on or was for a long time
Puer lacrimabat et infelix erat. The boy was crying and was unhappy.
- repeated action in the past
Prima luce surgebat. He used to get up at dawn.
- attempted action in the past
Puer arborem ascendebat. The boy tried to climb the tree.
- an action begun in the past and still continuing at the time mentioned (jam,jam diu, dudum,pridem)
Tres jam horas aderam. I had been present for three hours (and still was present).

Future: 
- what is going to happen or will be
Epistola longa erit. The letter will be long.
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FINISHED (Perfect system)

Perfect: 
- 'once' action in the past
Veni, vidi, vici. I came, I saw, I conquered.
- the present result of a past action
Pontem fecerunt. The have built the bridge.
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Pluperfect: 
- an action already completed before another action in the past
Regem occiderant priusquam pervenimus. They had killed the king before we arrived.
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Future perfect: 
- an action which will take place before another actin in the future
Si redieris, poenas dabis. If you return, you will be punished.
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Number: singular, plural

Person: 1st, 2nd, 3rd

Verbal adjective: participle

Verbal noun: gerund, supine

Four stems: present stem (1), present active infinitive (0), perfect stem (2), participial stem (3)

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am-o (1)

amare (0)

amav-i (2)

amat-um (3)

- love

hab-eo (1)

habere (0)

habu-i (2)

habit-um (3)

- have

mitt-o (1)

mittere (0)

mis-i (2)

miss-um (3)

- send

aud-io (1)

audire (0)

audiv-i (2)

audit-um (3)

- hear

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Active Indicative

Active Subjunctive

Passive Indicative

Passive Subjunctive

Present (1)

Present (1)

Present (1)

Present (1)

Imperfect (1)

Imperfect (1)

Imperfect (1)

Imperfect (1)

Future (1)

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Future (1)

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Perfect (2)

Perfect (2)

Perfect (3)

Perfect (3)

Pluperfect (2)

Pluperfect (2)

Pluperfect (3)

Pluperfect (3)

Future perfect (2)

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Future perfect (3)

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Active Imperative

Active Infinitive

Passive Infinitive

Present (1)

Present (0)

Present (1)

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Perfect (2)

Perfect (3)

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Future (3)

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Active Participle

Passive Participle

Gerund

Supine

Present (1)

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(1)

(3)

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Perfect (3)

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Future (3)

Future (1)

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