分詞 PARTICIPLE(同時享有形容詞及動詞的特性=動形容詞)

主動語態 Acive 被動語態 Passive
現在時態 Present

ama-ns -ntis

全過時態 Perfect

amat-us -a -um

將來時態 Future

amat-urus -ura -urum

amand-us -a -um

形容詞 As adjective:

Gaudens te gaudentem video. (我高興看你高興。 I, a happy person, see you a happy person.)

Pueri obedientes placent omnibus. (服從的孩子眾人喜歡。Obedient children please everybody.)

Oculi dolentes aegre vident. (眼痛看得辛苦。Painful eyes see with difficulty.)

Oculis dolentibus aegre videmus. (我們用痛眼看得辛苦。We see with difficulty with painful eyes.)

Oculi clausi nihil vident. (閉了眼看不到東西。Closed eyes see nothing.)

Oculis clausis te etiam cognosco. (我閉了眼也認得你。I recognise you with closed eyes.)

Proclamatione inde facta et nullo prohibenti, terre Hugoni dimittuntur.( 以此聲明及無人反對下,此地歸胡公。A proclamation having then been made and no one forbidding, the lands are handed over to Hugh.)

Dedi ... tenementum cum omnibus pertinentiis, excepto horreo.(除穀倉外,我把全部附屬物租賃給... I gave ... a tenement with all appurtenances, the barn having been taken out.)

Notum sit omnibus hoc praesens scriptum visuris vel audituris quod ego ....(為所有將讀到與聽到此文件者,我謹聲明... Be it known to all about to see or hear this present writing that I ...)

Pecunia solvenda est.(該還的錢。The money is to be paid.)

名詞 As noun:

Vendentes fraudant ementes. (賣者騙買者。Vendors cheat buyers.)

Ridentibus non facile credimus. (我們不容易相信嘻笑者。We believe, not easily, ridiculing persons.)

動詞 As verb:

Vacans virtute virtuti vacare debes. (你欠缺德行該修德。You, lacking virtue, need spend time on virtue.)

Vix pransus noli iam libris incumbere! (剛吃過,別埋首書本。Having just eaten do not lean upon books!)

動形容詞 As verbal adjective (participle proper):

Pueri poenam timentes plorabant. (孩子怕罰都哭了。Boys, afraid of punishment, cried.)

Homo pauperum miserens benignus est. (憐貧者有仁心。The man, pitying the poor, is kind.)

Non misereor mendici laborem timentis. (我不可憐怕工作的乞丐。I pity not the beggar who is afraid of work.)

Mendico laborem timenti non adsum. (我不幫助怕工作的乞丐。I do not help the beggar who is afraid of work.)

Te hoc dicente, omnes mirabantur. (眾人皆驚訝你說這話。All are surprised by your saying that.)

應份 Ought:

Pauperes iuvandi sunt. (窮人應受助。The poor should be helped.)

Hic sunt vestes lavandae. (這衣服都要洗。Here are clothes ought to be washed.)

Hic non est ludendum sed laborandum. (此乃工場非嬉戲之地。Here is not for playing but for working.)

Tibi scribendum est a me. (該寫給你的是我。It ought to be written to you by me.)

Media ad virtutem colendam sunt constantia et patientia. (修德之道乃恆與忍。The means to cultivate virtue are constancy and patience.)

Vero dicendo displices. (你不喜歡人說真話。You displease [people] by saying the true thing.)

Vobis puniendis etiam ego puniendus sum. (你們該罰則我也該罰。I ought to be punished if you ought to be punished.)


nosco, noscere, novi, notum - to get to know

praesum, praeesse, praefui - to be present

scribo, scribere, scripsi, scriptum - to write

video, videre, vidi, visum - to see

audio, audire, audivi, auditum - to hear

English: agenda, memoranda, corrigenda, propaganda, addenda