1) Narrative
   - real, potential, irreal, possible concessive, impossible
2) Affective
   - possible optative, impossible optative, hortative, imperative, prohibitive
3) Interrogative
   - simple, compound, rhetoric, dubitative

1) Independent
2) Dependent
   - objective, subjective, attributive, adverbial

1) Infinitive
2) Participle
   - as adjective, noun, verb, verbal adjective, ought
3) Gerund
   - as noun
4) Supine
   - as noun
*     *     *    


1) Narrative sentence:

- real:
Pater veniet. (Father will be coming.)

- potential:
Fortasse nemo hoc credit. (Perhaps nobody believes this.)
Velim mecum venias. (Please come with me.)

- irreal:
Sine sole terra frigida esset. (Without the sun, the earth would be cold.)
Cum gladio David non vicisset. (With a sword, David would not have won.)

- possible concessive:
Sis sanus, doctus, dives, felix tamen non es. (You may be healthy, learned, rich, however, you are not happy.)
Ne fueris latro, fur sine dubio eras. (Even if you have not been a robber, without doubt you were a thief.)

- impossible consessive:
Fuisses Napoleon, Caesar, num adhuc potens esses? (Even if you had been Napoleon, Caesar, would you still be powerful?)

2) Affective sentence:

- possible optative:
Utinam hoc verum sit! (I wish this to be true.)
Utinam verum dixeris! (I wish you have told the truth.)

- impossible optative:
Utinam jam in caelo essem! (I wish I were in heaven!)
Utinam vixissem tempore Alexandri. (I wish I had lived in the time of Alexander!)

- hortative:
Velim cito venias! (I wish you would come quickly!)
Cito venias, quaeso! (Please, come quickly!)

- imperative:
Veni, dic mihi omnia! (Come, tell me everything!)
Ad omnia vere respondebis! (You shall answer everything truefully!)

- prohibitive (2 person):
Ne mentiaris! (You should not lie!)
Noli mentiri! (Don't lie!)
Ne mentitus sis! (Never be a liar!)
Hoc non facies! (You shall not do this!)

- prohibitive (3 person):
Ne loquantur decem simul! (Don't speak ten persons together!)
Hic non licet ludere. (Not allow to play here.)

3) Interrogative sentence:

- simple:
Quis venit? (Who comes?)
Nonne adhuc vivis? (Are you still living?)
Timuistine? (Were you afraid?)

- compound:
Utrum amico credis an inimico? (Whether you believe in friend or in enemy?)
Esne contentus annon? (You are content, aren't you?)

- rhetoric:
Quid turpius est quam peccare? (What is uglier than to sin?)
matrem meam ego non diligam? (Would I not love my mother?)

- dubitative:
Quid tunc facerem? (What would I do then?)
Quid nunc dicam? (What would I say now?)


1. Independent sentence:

  • Paulus ridet, sed Iacobus flet. (Paul laughs but James cries.)

  • 2. Dependent sentence:

  • Latro occidit viatorem, quia se defenderat. (The robber killed the tourist because he defended himself.)
  • 2.1 - Objective sentence:

  • accusative with infinitive
  • ---- verbs of perception:
    Audivi patrem meum aegrotare. (I heard my father is sick.)
    (accipere, ignorare, intellegere, judicare, cogitare, credere, discere, scire, sentire, sperare, videre)

    ---- verbs of declaration:
    Dixit se aegrotare. (He said himself sick.)
    (affirrmare, clamare, demonstrare, significare, dicere, docere, jurare, narrare, negare, nuntiare, ostendere, referre, scribere, tradere, memoria tenere)

    ---- other verbs:
    Veto te haec dicere. (I prohibit you to say that.)
    (jubere, vetare, prohibere, sinere, pati, velle, nolle, malle, cupere, gaudere, laetari, mirari, dolere, aegre ferre, graviter ferre, molest ferre)

  • indirect question:
    Dic mihi, nun hoc sit verum (Tell me whether this is true.)

  • conjunctional:
    Oro te, ut ignoscas mihi. (I beg you to ignore me.)
  • 2.2 Subjective sentence:

  • accusative with infinitive verb to be:

  • ---- Justum est, domum regis esse optimam. (It is fair that the king's house should be the best.)
    (aequum, apertum, credibile, dignum, facile, honestum, justum, mirum, necesse.... est)

    ---- Opus est domum regis esse optimam. (It is necessary that the king's house should be the best.)
    ( opinio, opus, spes, fama, fas, nefas, tempus.....est)

    ---- Oportet domum regis esse optimam. (The king's house should be the best.)
    (apparet, elucet, pate, conducit, expedit, prodest, constat, convenit, fallit, fugit, latet, praeterit me, interest, refert, oportet, licet, praestat, decet, dedecet, juvat, placet, displicet, sufficit)

  • indirect question:
    Incertum est, num hoc sit verum. (It is not certain whether this should be true.)

  • conjunctional:
    Mos puerorum est, ut parva causa lacriment. (It is children's behaviour to cry for small matters.)
  • 2.3 - Attributive sentence:

  • relative:
    Beatus est homo, qui amat Deum. (The man is blessed who loves God.)

  • independent:
    Pluit et jam nox est. Qua de causa domi maneo. (It rains and is already night. Because of that I stay at home.)
  • 2.4 - Adverbial sentence:

  • temporal:
    Dum spiro, spero. (I hope while I breathe.)
    Postquam cenavimus, oramus. (After we dined, we pray.)
    Cum sol oritur, surgimus. (When the sun rised, we wake up.)

  • causal:
    Hoc malum non facies, quia bonus es. (You will not do this bad thing, because you are good.)
    Quoniam alii tacent, ego loqui debeo. (Because all keep silent, I need to speak.)
    Laudo te, quod hoc fecisti. (I praise you that you did this.)

  • finality:
    Cor habemus, ut amemus (We have hearts so that we could love.)
    Ideo tacui, ut alii loquerentur.(Therefore I kept silent so that others may speak.)

  • comparative:
    Majus donum misi quam accepi. (To send a gift is bigger than to accept one.)
    Quo plus te doceo, eo stulititior fis. (The more I teach you, the more stupid you become.)
    Haec omnia dixisti, quasi ipse vidisses. (You said all these as if you have seen them yourself.)

  • consecutive:
    Tam superbus est, ut me numquam salutaret. (He is so proud that he never greeted me.)
    Tam bene fecisti omnia, ut nemo te non laudet. (You have done so well that nobody not praise you.)

  • conditional:
    Si hoc dicis, erras. (If you say this, you are wrong.)
    Si hoc dicas, erres. (If you were to say this, you would be making a mistake.)
    Si hoc diceres, errares. (If you said this, you would be making a mistake.)
  • Si hoc dixisses, erravisses. (If you had said this, you would have made a mistake.)
  • concessive:
    Quamquam multa scis, adhuc plura ignoras. (Although you know much, you are still ignorant.)
    Quamvis multa scias, adhuc plura ignoras. (Even if you know much, you are still ignorant.)

    1) INFINITIVE (amare, amavisse, amat-urus -ura -urum esse/ amari, amat-us -a -um esse)

    Cantare iucundum est. (To sing is joyful.)
    Noli peccare. (Do not sin.)
    Vivere est laborare. (To live is to work.)

    Gaudeo te venire. (I am glad you come.)
    Gavisus sum te venisse. (I was glad you came.)
    Gaudebo te venturum esse. (I would be glad to have you come.)

    Audivi parentes meos aegrotare. (I heard my parents ill.)
    Dixit se aegrotare. (He said himself ill.)
    Hoc optimum (esse) videtur. (This seems to be the best.)
    Parentes mei aegrotare dicuntur. (They say my parents are sick.)

    2) PARTICIPLE (ama-ns -ntis/ amat-urus -ura -urum/ amat-us -a -um/ amand-us -a -um)

    as adjective:
    Gaudens te gaudentem video. (I, a happy person, see you a happy person.)
    Pueri obedientes placent omnibus. (Obedient children please everybody.)
    Oculi dolentes aegre vident. (Painful eyes see with difficulty.)
    Oculis dolentibus aegre videmus. (We see with difficulty with painful eyes.)
    Oculi clausi nihil vident. (Closed eyes see nothing.)
    Oculis clausis te etiam cognosco. (I recognise you with closed eyes.)

    as noun:
    Vendentes fraudant ementes. (Vendors cheat buyers.)
    Ridentibus non facile credimus. (We believe, not easily, ridiculing persons.)

    as verb:
    Vacans virtute virtuti vacare debes. (You , lacking virtue, need spend time on virtue.)
    Vix pransus noli iam libris incumbere! (Having just eaten do not lean upon books.)

    as verbal adjective (participle proper):
    Pueri poenam timentes plorabant. (Boys, afraid of punishment, cried.)
    Homo pauperum miserens benignus est. (The man, pitying the poor, is kind.)
    Non misereor mendici laborem timentis. (I pity not the beggar who is afraid of work.)
    Mendico laborem timenti non adsum. (I do not help the beggar who is afraid of work.)
    Te hoc dicente, omnes mirabantur. (All are surprised by your saying that.)

    Pauperes iuvandi sunt. (The poor should be helped.)
    Hic sunt vestes lavandae. (Here are clothes ought to be washed.)
    Hic non est ludendum sed laborandum. (Here is not for playing but for working.)
    Tibi scribendum est a me. (It ought to be written to you by me.)
    Media ad virtutem colendam sunt constantia et patientia. (The means to cultivate virtue are constancy and patience.)
    Vero dicendo displices. (You displease [people] by saying the true thing.)
    Vobis puniendis etiam ego puniendus sum. (I ought to be punished if you ought to be punished.)

    3) GERUND (am-andi -ando -andum -ando) - as noun

    Nunc tempus ludendi est. (Now is time of playing.)
    Manus laborando aptae sunt. (Hands are fit for working.)
    Manus ad laborandum aptae sunt. (Hands are appropriate to working.)
    Errando discimus. (We learn by making mistakes.)

    4) SUPINE (amat-um -u) - as noun [intention, mode]

    Multi veritatem auditum venerunt. (Many came for listening truth.)
    Hostes legatos pacem petitum miserunt. (Enemies sent delegates for requesting peace.)
    Hoc est facile dictu, difficile factu. (This is easy to be said, difficult to be done.)
    Veritas non semper est jucunda auditu. (Truth is not always pleasing to be heard.)