1) Formation of adverbs:

cur why?
etiam also
ita so
sic thus
tam so much
nimis too much
haud not at all
fere almost
vix hardly
cras tomorrow
diu a long time
jam already
mox soon

antea (ante-ea) formerly
postea (post-ea) afterwards
interea (inter-ea) meanwhile
hodie (hoc-die) today
quotannis (quot-annis) every year
denuo (de-novo) again
scilicet (scire-licet) of course
videlicet (videre-licet) evidently
propterea (propter-ea) therefore
quare? (qua-re) how/why?
imprimis (in primis) especially
invicem (in-vicem) mutually

ubi? where? ibi there alicubi somewhere
unde? where from? ibidem in the same place uspiam somewhere
quo? how? inde from there usquam anywhere
quando? when? hinc from here alicunde from somewhere
quam? how? istinc from there aliquuo somewhere
quomodo? how? illinc from there aliquando sometime
quotiens? how many times? indidem from the same place unquam ever
quot? how many? eo there numquam never
quantum? how much? istuc to that aliquantum somewhat
illuc to there aliquot some
huc to this aliquoties several times
eodem to the same place
tum then
tunc at that time
tam so much
item likewise
toties so often
tot so many
tantum as

1.4) derive from positive adjectives:

1.4.1 - for first and second declension adjectives: add -e to the stem

longus longa longum: longe

liber libera liberum: libere

pulcher pulchra pulchrum: pulchre

* exception:

- in acc. n. sg. : ceterum, multum, nimium, paulum, primum, postremum, parum, plurimum,

- in abl. sg. : cito, continuo, crebro, perpetuo, falso, raro, secreto, merito, immerito, necessario, primo, postrmo, sero, subito, tuto

- certo, certe; vero, vere; bene, male; fraudulenter, violenter

- ending in -itus: antiquitus, caelitus, radicitus, divinitus

- ending in -tim: paulatim, sensim, statim, privatim, nominatim, passim

1.4.2 - for third declension adjectives: add -iter to the stem (only -er if the stem ends in -nt)

fortis fortis forte: fortiter

celer celeris celere: celeriter

acer acris acre: acriter

felix felix felix, felicis: feliciter

sapiens sapiens sapiens, sapientis: sapienter

* exception:

facile (facilis facilis facile);

difficulter (difficilis difficilis difficile)

triste (tristis tristis triste);

audacter (audax: audacis),

1.5) derive from comparative adjectives:

the neuter of comparative adjectives ( in -ius)

1.6) derive from superlative adverbs:

add -issime or -rime to the stem

e.g. altus -a -um -> altissimus -> altissime

e.g. acer -cris -cre -> acerrimus -> acerrime


plurimum (most)

primo (first)

primum (in the first place)

2) declension of adverbs:

no declension.

3) usage of adverbs:

3.1) positive adverbs:

hic poeta cucurrit celeriter.

3.2) comparative and superlative adverbs:

with quam:

hic puer celerius cucurrit quam ille.

illa puella quam celerrime cucurrit.

* special meaning:

quam primum (as soon as possible)