楊勁賢

 

貝克特之死 亨利二的自白

 

引言

 

西方世界從十一世紀開始,國家體系正在逐步形成,[1]王權與教權之間開始了此消彼長的競爭,構成了中世紀的獨特政治舞台。坎雷伯特大主教(Archbishop of Canterbury)貝克(Thomas Becket)之死與亨利二(1154-1189在位)之懺悔是這舞台上的一章,然而歷史向前走一步,都是充滿著機會及可能性;不同的角度,事件會有不同的面貌;本文試從亨利二之角度作書信式之獨白,剖析貝克特之死;並從而突顯王權與教權衝突之時代意義。

 

致吾友貝克特亨利二的自白

 

吾友,別矣四年!明天我將在你賤血之地,身穿麻衣,俯首懺悔。[2]

 

吾友貝克特,我與你相識十三載,[3]知我者莫若你,你該深知此行非我所願;然而,我當以亨利四卡諾之行為,忍辱負重[4],你該明白我對理想之堅持;但一直教我耿耿於懷是你濺血祭壇之一幕。

 

四年前那個冬夜,天氣特別冷,侍臣領來四名武士,燭光掩映,看見的是盔甲上的雪片與泥濘,還有閃爍興奮的眼光;[5]我並不熟識他們,只道是宮廷中管事的,但他們所吐出的卻是讓我心頭涼了半截的事件…

 

對,我是要懺悔的,為自己的衝動的話語而向你懺悔,[6]他們四人的血,是洗不去我的歉疚,推卸不了我的責任。[7]我們曾是此要好的摯友、戰友。[8]

 

甫登位,你就是我的左右手,你對法律的知識、在軍事上的果斷更是我繼承父志的把持。[9]那時,我們笙歌作樂之餘[10],還滿懷熱誠,燭夜談,商討鴻圖大計。我跟你說起那段奪回皇位的歷程[11],教我切齒,並非失去我應有的權力,而是眼底下受盡戰火蹂躪的人民每次我領軍走過我父遺下的國土,看見一雙雙無助的眼睛、襤褸的衣服、荒蕪的田畝,還有嬰兒的哭喊,我想:上主給了他們甚麼呢?可以把我的子民拯救於水深火熱中嗎?我矢志要用我的劍繼承我父之遺志[12],。我深知人民對我是有所期許,他們要我與父王一樣,為他們帶回秩序、帶回和平;[13]那是一段光輝的歲月!

 

然而,我細讀父皇的平生,他教我知道以嚴厲的軍事手腕以維持和平,實非長治久安的方法行政效率、中央集權、整全之稅收方是統治之主調:[14]《土地清丈冊》(Domesday Book) 、財政部的成立、皇家司法權之擴張都是他的偉略[15]我倆每論及此,莫不讚嘆,然而當時的制度並非完善的,[16]我們不是有更遠大的理想嗎?除了維持安茹的版圖、增強王室之權威、增加稅收外,[17]我們不是要讓人民體現一個更公平、更公義之國度嗎?這更是鞏固民心,安穩政權之道!

       

        任命你為密大臣,引薦你為大主教,實為擴充王室法院管轄權,體現審判的公正性;這不是我們的理想嗎?[18]劃分巡迴審判區,任命巡迴法官,將地方習慣與王室法令之間取平衡點,並作爲以後審判同類案件之依據[19]這個平衡點是必須借助王權以作承托,但它決不是王室,也不是地方或領主的,它是法官的,是客觀的,是公正的;還有,建立陪審團制度以取代了古老的英格蘭的用水用火之神明裁判法,或古諾曼的靠戰爭決定的裁判法等這些都是我們熱切的話題啊!
       

        你該明白要建立這片新天地,教廷又怎能置於事外?教會法庭對犯罪教士,即使是犯上殺人的,可能只是剝奪神職,然後就給釋放;但在皇家法院,卻要面對死刑或去手剁[20]—這公允嗎?教廷與皇失協調,則成犯罪者之自由天地[21]你我容忍得了嗎?更甚者,如教廷對皇家官員有其罷免權,咱們一切的心血都將付之東流!                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

 

受命以來,我從不言倦,只為理想奔馳[22];而你,你不單是我的臣下,我視你為這漫漫路上的唯一的戰友、唯一的摯友;你怎可給我背叛?難道你穿上大主教聖袍的一刻,忽爾一切都丟到背後嗎?[23]你甚至質疑我的權力[24]這是何等憤怒!難道你忘了,你所穿的聖袍是我所引線的?[25]

 

事實上,我所要求教會妥協的,比過往諸如:我父與安塞爾莫之「主教敘任權之爭[26]加里斯都二與神聖羅馬帝國皇帝亨利五之「沃爾姆斯宗教協定[27]、甚或是亞歷山大教皇所面對的[28],實在微不足道,[29]而你當教會眾人也願接納時,竟斷然拒絕,[30]無有餘地,你所持的是以主的旨意為依歸實在萬料不到;於我而言,是背叛;往後之克拉倫登憲法[31]只是向你明言我對理想的堅持而已;一如我父對安塞莫爾之堅持。[32]

 

然而你為著在教會中顯示你的尊崇地位,這樣微不足道的妥協你竟也拒之門外,你可曾想到讓你踏入教會門檻,坐於尊者之位的正是這刻請求你幫助的朋友?不是嗎?你要與我的理想抗爭,你刻意摒棄榮華[33]、成為教會獨立的辯護者、我的頑敵,難道就可追隨安塞莫爾[34]之後,讓世人稱許嗎?抑或你全心全意為教會呢?我明白許許多多的平民百姓都以基督信仰比效忠國家更重要,[35]但這個是你嗎?況且,你實非我臣下,你是我的戰友、我的摯友。

 

貝克特,畢竟教會並不是上主,當教會之權力無限量擴張時,主持教會的始終是背負著原罪的「人」,當「人」受著地上之財富權力引誘時,能行絕對的公義嗎[36]即如,教廷發動第一次聖戰,無疑,透過此行,將農奴解放,讓他們自由;但你不可否認,這只不過是教廷以他們對上主的虔敬、對自由的渴求送他們到戰場,釀一場屠殺罷了![37]貝克特,我跟你一樣熱愛歷史[38],你當熟知教廷的過去,這答案你我是了然於胸。我放眼將來,所憂懼的教廷恃著這權力,凡與教廷相悖的,即成異端[39]這當是多麼黑暗的面貌!我只是持劍衛道,而我也只懂單手持劍,故劍只有一把;貝克特,我從沒有意圖把你教廷的劍也奪過來[40],我只願我們合力把人民領向更公平的社會一個在法律前人平等的社會而已[41]

 

但你對克拉倫登憲法的反駁與漠視教我震怒[42],我不還以顏色,難消心頭之忿! 大概你最意料不到的,是你逃離英國,向教皇亞歷山大尋求支持時,他給你的鼓舞實在你頭上的一瓢冷水罷?[43]事實上,由你迅速即位大主教來看,你該清楚皇與教廷實是千絲萬縷的關係,你又何必堅持固執,大概你要追隨安塞莫爾,以成就自己輝煌之一生罷!咱倆是物以類累,都是寧作玉碎不作瓦全之人罷!

 

流亡的六年,你該是掙扎在瓦全與玉碎之間,我深深體會你當中的苦痛;我也期待著咱倆並肩同行之日子我許下承諾,只要你認許克拉倫登憲法,我既往不究,你仍是大主教

 

我們最後相聚的一趟,你的落泊讓我以為你願妥協;回到英國,你再罷黜我的支持者,[44]我實在不可竭,這是一而再的背叛,不單是臣對君之悖逆,更是友情之棄絕,我怒吼。

 

        這無心快語,釀就了你的亡故,我是必須負上責任;可是,我相信,一切是在你預計之中。

 

知我者莫若你,甚至比我自己,你更為了解我;你知道我的憤怒會對你窮追不捨,你該知道我絕對沒有殺你意,我只要你走投無路,以償你於我的背從信棄義之罪;苟且偷生絕非你的本色,於是,在祭壇前從容就義,作如此殉道,也成就了你自己輝煌的一生,你的封聖大概也在你自己預計之內罷

 

我相信,沒你作舵手的教會是無法阻擾我理想國度的實現;但你的濺血,不單終結咱倆衝突,還延續了你舵手的角色克拉倫登憲法給否決了。是的,你的聖跡、你的封聖[45]也該是我預期的沒有這些,怎能延續你作教會的舵手呢?

 

然而,你的血,也澆熄了我心頭的憤怒,該讓我看得更清明。匹夫之勇,成不了大事,你

你的離,我的懺悔是王權與教權雙劍衝突之下必然的結果。明日我在祭壇俯首後,歷史又在等候著另一個循環,另一個我,另一個你。

 

我跟你一般,不能讓歷史把自己湮沒;我當忍辱,為著理想,為著人民,我要走更遠的路。[46]

 

我要歷史上給我留名的不單是「忍辱」的暗面,更要是「負重」的亮度[47];歷史上必有我光輝之一章。

 

你的摯友

亨利


-             參考書目:

亨德里克.房龍:《人類的故事》(台北,好讀出版社,2004

李秋零、田薇:《神光沐浴下的文化再生—文明在中世紀的艱難鄖B》北京 : 華夏出版社,2000

漢斯-維爾納. 茨著亞平譯:《歐洲中世紀生活 7-13 世紀》( 北京 : 東方出版社, 2002)

C.Warren Hollister 張學明譯:《西洋中古史》(台北,聯經出版社,1986)

漢斯維爾納.格茨著 亞平譯:《歐洲中世紀生活》(北京:東方出版社, 2002)

Alfred J. Andrea  [selected by] The medieval record : sources of medieval history /.

Boston : Houghton Mifflin, c1997.

Jo Ann Hoeppner Moran CruzMedieval worlds : an introduction to European history, 300-1492, Richard Gerberding. Boston, MA : Houghton Mifflin, c2004.

H.G. Koenigsberger: Medieval Europe 400-1500, Longman Group UK Limited, New York ,19871122

 

 

後記:本文只為一份研習歷史之習作,試圖如神父所言,走進歷史與歷史展開對話。



[1]「隨著社會由戰爭狀態逐步進入安定時期,中世紀的社會活動開好在經濟、政治和交文化等各方面出現你自羅馬帝國傾頹後的復興生機…李秋零、田薇:神光沐浴下的文化再生 文明在中世紀的艱難鄖B 北京 : 華夏出版社2000頁184。

[2] Henry, full of remorse did penance imposed by the pope .He walked to Canterbury Cathedral in sack cloth and ashes and allowed himself to be flogged by the monks there. http;//www.britainexpress.com/History/Henry_II_and_Thomas_a_Becket.htm 

[3]Becket benefited from his family's status first by being sent to Paris for his education and from there to England where he joined the household of Theobold, the then Archbishop of Canterbury. Becket's administrative skills, his charm, intelligence and diplomacy propelled him forward. The archbishop sent him to Paris to study law and upon his return to England made him Archdeacon of Canterbury.Becket's big break came in 1154, when Theobold introduced him to the newly crowned Henry II. http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/becket.htm

另載有關兩人之相交,見http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14676a.htm“The chroniclers speak with wonder of the relations which existed between the chancellor and the sovereign, who was twelve years his junior. People declared that “they had but one heart and one mind”

[4] 卡諾覲見。1077 年 1 月,神聖羅馬帝國的皇帝亨利四在寒冬越過阿爾陴斯山,到義大利北部的卡諾,身披罪衣,赤足立於雪地之中,請求教皇格利高里七( 1073 ∼ 1085 年)寬恕,接受格利高里禁止世俗授職予主教和修道院長等。以後,亨利四重整旗鼓,帶兵進犯義大利進行報復,格利高里七於 1085 年在流亡中死去.

[5] C.Warren Hollister 張學明譯:《西洋中古史》(台北,聯經出版社,1986) 頁229:「四個過度熱心的皇家武士潛入肯特伯里大教堂,有大祭壇上刺殺貝克特。」

[6] Henry II was purported to shout: "What sluggards, what cowards have I brought up in my court, who care nothing for their allegiance to their lord. Who will rid me of this meddlesome priest."

[7]所參閱之資料並沒有關於四個武士行刺後的記載。

[8]亨利即位之初,著手整頓封建秩序,嚴加鎮壓內亂期間騷動的大封建主,下令拆毀英格蘭貴族在以前無政府時期未經特准而興建的城堡,又改革軍制

[9]  註三

[11]C.Warren Hollister 張學明譯:《西洋中古史》,頁224亨利一世(1100-1135)去世時,亨利二只有兩歲,王位為亨利一世之侄兒布亞的史蒂芬 (Stephen of Blois) 所得為了格魯諾曼的領土控制權,史蒂芬與瑪蒂耳達、傑利及從他們日漸長大的兒子鬥爭了十九動亂的年頭;貴族們有的支持這一邊、有的支持另一邊,逕自興築未得御准的城堡、奪皇家權力。各階層的人飽受戰爭煎熬,都渴望重享亨利一世時代的昇平日子。

另見http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/medievalengland.htm“Anarchy in 12th century England”

[12]亨德里克.房龍:《人類的故事》,頁221亨利一世(1100-1135)是靈巧的外交家和行政革新者,他肅清國內的叛亂,並利用當時增長中的繁華抽取重稅。…他對他的英國與諾曼子民的偉大事功是:嚴厲維護和平。

[13]10

[14] C.Warren Hollister 張學明譯:《西洋中古史》,頁222

[15] C.Warren Hollister 張學明譯:《西洋中古史》,頁221:「征服者威廉及其兒子在位時,是皇家行政管理建制的重要成長。地產勘查紀錄《土地清丈冊》(Domesday Book)1086年皇家令對土地從事綜合調查的產品,見證了征服者威廉體制的行政威力。1066-1135之間,皇室行政管理逐漸精密、更有效率。亨利一世末期,皇家的司法人員巡迴英格蘭各地,在各郡法庭裡聽訟,於是把國王的司法管轄拓展到每一角落。

[16]李紅海:亨利二世改革與英國普通法載於http://www.gongfa.com/heliershigeigeyuputongfalihh.htm:「最後在十二世紀初的幾十年,國王也曾選派過一些王室法官到地方主持巡迴審判。但總的看來,至少在亨利二之前,英國的王室司法機構還沒有正式形成,王室司法行爲還帶有很大的隨意性和非專門性,在這樣的條件下,自然很難發展出它自己的法律體系。」

[17] C.Warren Hollister 張學明譯:《西洋中古史》,頁225:這是亨利二所追求的三個彼此相關的目標。

[18]見〈諾曼第與安茹皇朝〉載於:http://limbo.blogbus.com/logs/2005/11/1596195.html:凡自由民繳納一定費用可把自己的案件從領主法庭轉移到王室法庭。王國只通行一種法律,即禦前會議制定由王室頒實施的法律。這成爲英國獨具特色的普通法的起源。

[19]王本存 法官是什?〉,載法律思想網:這是對後世法律發展有著重要作用的巡迴法庭中的法官們在各地審判案件時,除遵循王室法令外,主要依據當地習慣。當他們重聚倫敦時,通過情況交流和相互磋商,彼此承認對方判決可以作爲以後審判同類案件之依據,在全國通行,這就是普通法(The common law)。普通法的出現完全是法官們在那個死節的糾纏下,習慣與王室法令之間艱難取捨的一個産物,儘管它必須借助王權,但它決不是王室,也不是習慣的,它是法官的。正如考文所言:“人們認爲普通法從一開始就建立在習慣上。事實上,普通法即是習慣,這些習慣是通過上述審判制度逐步發展爲全國性的,也就是說發展爲普通的(common)。

[20] C.Warren Hollister 張學明譯:《西洋中古史》,頁228

[21]李紅海:亨利二世改革與英國普通法〉:教會在西歐中世紀的強勢存在,造成了宗教勢力與世俗政治勢力之間的制衡,客觀上爲人們提供了一定的自由空間。儘管兩種勢力或此消彼長,或勢均力敵,而且互有滲透,但基本上形成了兩相匹敵的權威,即精神的權威和世俗的權威,達到“撒的歸撒,耶穌的歸耶穌”的狀態。既然不存在絕對、唯一的權威,也就不容易産生鉗制一切的專制。“一個追求自由的人可以在兩邊躲藏——得罪了世俗政府,可以躲到教會;得罪了教會,可以請求國王的庇護,教會與世俗政府之間的張力給人們帶來了一個相對自由的空間…

[22] Jo Ann Hoeppner Moran CruzMedieval worlds : an introduction to European history, 300-1492, Richard Gerberding. Boston, MA : Houghton Mifflin, c2004.p.330-331

“….those who knew Henry were impressed with his inexhaustible energy- From morning to night he is engaged unceasingly on affairs of state. He never sits down except when he mounts his horse or takes a meal and he frequently rides in one day a journey four or five times the length of a normal day’s ride. It is very difficult to find out where he is or what he will do during the day for the frequently changes his plans….”

[23]貝克特曾言:I served our Theobald well when I was him; I served King Henry well as Chancellor; I am his no more, and I must serve the Church.

[24]貝克對於皇權之言論,載於http://ise.uvic.ca/Library/SLTnoframes/istory/henryii.html

“And since it is certain that kings receive their power from the Church, not she from them but from Christ, so, if I may speak with your pardon, you have not the power to give rules to bishops, nor to absolve of excommunicate anyone, to draw clerks before secular tribunals, …. and many other things of his sort which are written among your customs which you call ancient.”

[25]‘ The Murder of Thomas Becket 1170’ 載於http://www.eyewitnesstohistory .com/pfbecket.htm, 

“Archbishop Theobold died in 1161, and Henry immediately saw the opportunity to increase his influence over the Church by naming his loyal advisor to the highest ecclesiastical post in the land. Henry petitioned the Pope who agreed There was only one slight hindrance. Beckect, busy at court, had never been ordained. No problem, Becket was first invested as a priest. The next day he was ordained a Bishop, and that afternoon, June2,1162, made Archbishop of Canterbury.

[26]主教敘任權之爭Investiture Controversy教廷與神聖羅馬帝國之間關於神職人員的統治代表象徵究竟屬誰的問題的爭論。1075年教宗格列高利七譴責安排主教敘任權是世俗當局對教會的不公平的主張;這個問題不僅是他與亨利四皇帝爭論的關鍵,也是教廷與帝國之間更大的權力之爭的關鍵。英格蘭的亨利一世1106亦曾放棄安排主教敘任權,但交換條件是在受神職之前要先向國王表示敬意。

見〈大英簡明百科〉之「主教敘任權之爭」條,載於http://203.64.158.220/ebintra/Content.asp?ContentID=11874

[27]沃爾姆斯宗教協定Concordat of Worms 1122年教宗加里斯都二與神聖羅馬帝國皇帝亨利五11061125年在位)為解決主教敘任權之爭而訂立的和解條款。這一協定標誌著教權與王權鬥爭第一階段的結束。協定對於高級教士的神職性質與他們作為封地領主對皇帝的臣屬地位,有明確的規定。主教及修道院長由教士選出,若選舉中發生分歧,則由皇帝決定人選。當選者首先被授予代表世俗權力的權標,然後被授予代表宗教權力的牧杖和權戒

見〈大英簡明百科〉之「沃爾姆斯宗教協定」條,載於http://203.64.158.220/ebintra/Content.asp?ContentID=24836

[28]原名羅蘭多班迪內利(Rolando Bandinelli)教宗(11591181年在位)。早年研究神學和法學。因擔心神聖羅馬帝國(Holy Roman Empire)的勢力日益壯大,因而推動與諾曼人結盟(1156)。他惹惱了紅鬍子腓特烈,起因於指稱帝國為「聖」,暗喻為教宗的禮物。1159年樞機主教推選他為教宗,但是在腓特烈一世支持下也選出第一位偽教宗,使得他流亡法國(1162)。身為教宗威權的捍衛者,他支持貝克特St. Thomas Becket反對英格蘭國王亨利二1165年返回羅馬。1166腓特烈一世又迫使他再度流亡。在他的支持下倫巴底聯盟(Lornbard League)成立,於1176年在萊納諾(Legnano)擊敗腓特烈一世,為威尼斯和平鋪平了道路。他參與宗教傳統的改革,並主持1179年召開的拉蘭會議(Lateran Council)。

見〈大英簡明百科〉之「三亞歷山大三」條,載於http://203.64.158.220/ebintra/Content.asp?Query=&ContentID=352

[29] H.G. Koenigsberger: Medieval Europe 400-1500, Longman Group UK Limited, New York ,1987,p,172,

“The arguments which he (Becket) and Henry II put forward were entirely conventional and did not reach the level of the controversies between papalists and imperialists on the Continent. Nor was Alexander III prepared to back the archbishop unreservedly.”

[30] “The Feast of St. Thomas Becket 載於http://www.kensmen.com/catholic/customschristmasx.html,

“The king was quick to receive the inevitable outcome of the archbishop’s attitude and called a meeting of the clergy at Westminster (October 1 ,1163)at which he demanded that they renounce all claim to exemption from civil jurisdiction and acknowledge the equality of all subjects before the law. The others were inclined to yield, but the archbishop stood firm.”

[31]克拉倫登憲法, Constitutions of Clarendon西元1164年英王亨利二發布的確定英格蘭教會與國家關係的大法,共十六條。其宗旨在限制教會的特權和宗教法庭的權力。亨利主張是憲法代表古老的風俗習慣。見 C.Warren Hollister 張學明譯:《西洋中古史》,頁228

[32]亨利一世與坎特伯里安塞莫爾Anselm of Canterbury因主教敘任權問題而發生爭吵,雖然雙方在1107年妥協協定禁止俗人授職,但准許君主保有對重要教會職位的控制。教會的土地主管要繼續傳統,效忠於君主。比這項協定更為重要的是一個事實:兩年之後,安塞爾莫去世,皇室高壓與贊助兼用,支配了英格蘭教會。安塞爾莫的原則雖得到勝利,但教會仍普遍順從王室。

[33] Becket在未擔當大主教時,生活極盡榮華,一如HenryII;惟當上大主教後,即忽爾克儉約束。

[34]坎特伯里的聖安瑟倫Anselm of Canterbury, St西元1033/103411091078年成為貝克大修道院院長。1077年安倫寫出神學論文《獨白》(Monologium),試圖以訴諸理性的方法來證實上帝的存在和屬性。後來在一篇《關於上帝存在的談話》(Proslogium)裡創立了上帝存在的本體論論證ontological argument)。1093年升任坎特伯里(Canterbury)大主教。在主教敘任權之爭Investiture Controversy)中,他聲明只有教會當局(而不是世俗當局)有權授職給他。1099年完成為什麼上帝與人同形?》Cur Deus homo?,英譯名Why Did God Become Man?)書稿,成為贖罪的經典理論。1720年安倫被列為基督教初期長老之

[35] C.Warren Hollister 張學明譯:《西洋中古史》,頁177

[36] 11 世紀中期以前,教會實際上是世俗王權、領主的世俗工具.追求靈魂拯救、精神生活的教會完全陷入世俗生活,使教會腐化現象嚴重:許多教士娶妻,教職公開買賣,稱爲“買賣聖職”,甚至連教皇職位也買賣.如此,引起教會內部的改革運動,稱克呂尼運動(得名於克呂尼修道院).頁213

[37]http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/crusades.htm The First Crusade was the most successful in that it actually accomplished what it set out to do - conquer Jerusalem. But it had its problems. Responding to the Pope's challenge, thousands of peasants rallied to the cause motivated by a combination of religious fervor and the desire to escape their squalid condition at home. Led by Peter the Hermit and Walter the Penniless the hapless rabble marched across Europe to Constantinople, only to be slaughtered by the Turks soon after crossing the Bosphorus into Asia Minor.

[38] Jo Ann Hoeppner Moran CruzMedieval worlds : an introduction to European history, 300-1492p.333,

           ‘Like Eleanor, whose cultural patronage has been widely noted, he patronized writers. A number of letter collections and Latin treatises, mostly on law and history, were produced around Henry’s court.’

[39]十三世紀的宗教裁判即是如此。參見C.Warren Hollister 張學明譯:《西洋中古史》,頁177

[40]教皇傑拉西烏斯一世492——496年爲教皇)提出了 “雙劍”論。他說,在基督那,本來是君主、教主合爲一體的;但基督深知人的弱點,便在塵世中將這兩種職能分開,將兩把劍一給君主,一給教主,並令他們互相提攜。蓋拉西說:“治理現世有兩大系統,爲教士的神權,一爲人主的君權。在‘最後判決’中,就是君主也必須由教主代向天主負責。就此點而論,則這兩種權力中,教士權力的分量較重。” 見天賦超群:教權限制專制王權的巨大貢獻載於http://www.rxhj.net/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?t=5094&sid=16ad55e751786b65df5a32edd1064015

[41]30

[42]24

[43] C.Warren Hollister 張學明譯:《西洋中古史》,頁228:「亨利指責他的大主教,控告他對英國犯下各種罪行,貝克特否認國君有權審判大主教,遂逃離英國,尋求教皇的支持。教皇亞歷山大三世—正與斐烈特巴巴羅沙力鬥不敢再疏遠亨利;但是,他也不能不反對貝克特這麼熱心的教會支持者。這偉大的律師教皇只好既鼓舞貝克特,又不與亨利脫離關係於是貝克特流亡了六年。」

[44] C.Warren Hollister 張學明譯:《西洋中古史》,頁228:「一一七零年,亨利二和他的大主教同意休戰,兩者之間大部份懸而未決的爭端仍然未能平息,但是,這兩個敵對者立刻有另外的爭端:貝克特把許多亨利的支持者逐出教會;亨利二非常憤怒。」

[45] C.Warren Hollister 張學明譯:《西洋中古史》,頁228:「貝克被視為殉道者;聖據說曾在其墳墓中出現,於是他迅速被封聖徒。」

[46]事實上,到亨利二時,他確使以前臨時性的司法機構固定化、專門化。1178年,他在威斯敏斯特建立了長期的中央法庭——普通訴訟法庭(court of commonpleas),受理一般事“民訴訟”;國王自己仍然帶著他的法官四處巡迴審判,在亨利統治結束之前,他將身邊的一些法官留在了王寶駐地,代表國王審判,這就是王座法庭(court of king’s bench),後來其管轄範圍限於刑事案件和涉及王室人員的案件;財政署則繼續行使自己在財政稅收領域的司法權。以上三者遇到疑難不能解決的案件,都要拿到由國王及其教士和貴族組成的智者會議(councils of wiseman)上去討論決定。另外,也許最爲重要的措施當提亨利二世使以前偶然進行的巡迴審判制度化。這樣,從國王智者會議到國王巡迴審判,王座法庭,普通訴訟法庭,財政署再到各地的巡迴法庭,亨利二就建立了比較完備的王室司法機構。見李紅海:亨利二世改革與英國普通法〉。

C.Warren Hollister 張學明譯:《西洋中古史》,頁229:「他被迫懺悔,他對抗教會法院的鬥爭只是暫時受到拖延,他被迫在特殊事情上屈服,不過,他藉迂迴手段與謀略,終於獲得他在公開衝突中無法奪得的成果。到他在位末期,」

[47]英國首相邱吉爾曾言:在英格蘭的歷代國王中,有比亨利二傑出的軍人,也有比他更敏銳的外交家,但就法律和制度方面的貢獻而言,卻無人能和他媲美。......善於解決行政和法律方面的難題,這是他成就所在。他的各次戰鬥的名字早已湮沒無聞,但他的名望將同英國憲法和普通法一起永世長存。